3.1: After that Urdu format of all

3.1: Research Plan:

study was conducted in three phases.

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first phase the translation of three scales from English to Urdu was carried
out. Then the psychometric properties of these translated versions of scales were
measured. Second phase is consist of pilot study and in the third phase main
study was conducted.

3.2. Phase 1:

3.2.1. Translation of Scale

scales were translated in phase I

Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), brief COPE and The Ryff Scales of
Psychological Well-Being were used in the present study. These scales were
originally in English language. For getting the best results it was necessary
to translate these scales in Urdu. Scales were translated by using standard
back translation method. This process was done in following steps.

English to Urdu translation:

        Scales were translated in Urdu by the
experts having command on Urdu, English, and psychological terms. Word to word
translation was not required. Three members who were M.phil Scholars from
different institutes have translated the scales. The main concern during
translation of scales was cultural differences.


Translation back in English:

        After getting the scales translated in
Urdu, the other experts translated the Urdu scales back in to English.

Matching of translated and original

translation was matched to the original one. After that Urdu format of all
scales were designed and subjected to statistical analysis to measure the
reliability of scales.

Psychometric properties of
translated scales

translation the psychometric properties of scales were examined by researchers.


    Sample for the translation stage was
comprised of N (50 students). Sample was collected from Lahore region.
Demographic information of sample include age (17-28), gender; fsc marks,
economical status and family system were added.


was approached and briefed for the purpose of the study. Participants were
informed about the purpose and importance of the study. They were informed that
their information may be kept in confidence. Meanwhile if they feel
uncomfortable during the filling of questionnaire they can leave at any place. After
obtaining the data from the participants it was analyzed through SPSS 16.



total correlation of Kessler psychological distress scale, COPE scale and rhyff
scale for psychological well being.

scale correlation of the subscales of COPE scale.  


















Total Correlation Of Ryff Scale of Psychological Well Being. (N=50)

no.         r                 Item no.                  r                 item no.                  r

1                 .39                 15                       .37                  29                       .23  

2                 .53                16                       .27                   30                       .42

3                 .43                 17                       .29                  31                       .36

4                 .38                18                       .13                   32                       .45

5                 .13                 19                       .36                  33                       .29

6                .28                  20                        .19                 34                       .25                  

7                .42 
                21                        .45  
              35                       .31

8                .39 
                22                      .64  
                36                       .17

9                .40                 23                      .19   
                37                       .25

10               .42                24                      .39                   38                        .44

11               .33                 25                      .26                   39                       .24

12               .35                26                        .41                  40                       .54

13               .29                27                        .30 
                 41                      .34

14               .45                28                       .30 
                  42                      .33

**p<.01 .05 results of the table show that most items ryff scale have high positive correlation with their total score on p and .05. item kessler for psychological distress no. .49 .56 .62 .22 .73 .53 .54 .70 .76 .72 all kesseler except cope r .43 .18 .08 .33 .31 .03 .39 .38 .13 .25 .48 .47 .30 .27 .37 .35 .34 .17 discussion first phase study aimed to determine scales present was translated by researcher. sub also computed. are discussed as under. well being. indicate this is consistent significant relationship scale. demonstrates co relation distress. it shows only no.7 does not has been showing coping strategies measurement. correlation. subscales significantly correlated. findings there a which means internally will help get reliable in main study. ii: pilot ii related conducted complete following objectives. method.>