??? ??? ????????????? ??? ???????? ??? ??

 

???
??????? ???? ???????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ???????
??????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ???????, ??????? ?? ????????? ?????? ???
????????????  ???????, ????? ??? ??????
??? ??????? ??? ??? ??????? ???????????. ?? ??????? ????? ????????? ??
?????????? ????? ??? ????? ? ??????, ?? ??????? ?????????? (??????????, 1999:
169).

??
?????????? ????? ???? ????? ??????????:

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?????????????:
????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????????? ??? ???????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???
????????????? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ??
??????????, ??? ????????????? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?????
(??????, ????, ??????).
??????????????:
????? ?? ???????? ??? ??????????????? ????? ???? ???????????, ???
????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ??? ????????? ?????? ???? ?????? ???
???????????? ??? ??????????? ??????. ?? ????? ??? ??????, ????? ?????? ???
? ?????????????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???? «??????????????» ??? ??
?????? ?????????????? ??????????????.
???????????:
????? ? ?????? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ? ??????? ???? ?? ????????, ?
???????? ??? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????????????? ??? ???????????? ??? ???
?????????? ???.
????????:
?????????? ??? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ?? ??????? ???? ?????????? ????
?? ?????????????? ?? ????????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ???????????,
???? ? ?????? ????????????? ?????????.
?????????????????:
????????? ??? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ? ???????? ??? ????????
????????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??? ?????????????????? (??????? ?
???????). ???? ????? ?? ????????? ? ??????????????? ?????? ??? ??????? ???
? ????????????????? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ?????? (??????????,
1999: 169).

?
?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ??
???????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????????? ?? ????? ???
???????, ?? ???? ????????? ??? ???????? ?? ????????? ???’ ??? ?? ???????? ???
???? ???? ?????????? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ????????? ???? ????
???????????? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ???, ??? ?????
????????????, ??????????, ??????????????? ??? ??????????? ?? ??? ????????????.

?
???????? ??????? ????????????? ???????  ????????
??:

v  ???
???????? ???????????, ? ?????
???????? ??? ???????? ????? ??? ?? ????????? ?????????? ??? ???????

v  ???
??????????? ???????? ??? ???????????,
??? ?????????? ?? ??????????, ??? ?????????? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ??????

v  ???
??????????? ???????? ??? ????????????,
? ????? ????????? ???? ????????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???
?????????? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ?????????

v  ???
??????????? ???????????????? ????
????????? ??? ???????? ?????, ??? ?????????? ??? ???? ?? ????????? ?? ????????????
?????????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????????? ???????, ?? ?????? ?????????
??? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ????????????, ?? ????????
???? ?????? ??? ?? ??????????? ?????? ??? ?????, ??????? ????????? ???????? ???
????????? ????????? (??????????, 1999: 171-172).

 

1.3       ??????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ???? ???????? ??? ???????

 

??
?????? ??????????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ????????????? ????????? ???? ????
???????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ??????????????? ????????, ??? ?????
????????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ????? (????????, 2001: 31). ?? ????? ??? ?????
????????? ?????? ? ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????????? ??? ????????????? ??
?????? ?? ??????????? ??’ ????, ?? ??????????? ?? ?????????????? ??? ??
????????????? ?? ???? ?????????? ???, ???? ????????? ??????? ???? ???
?????????? ???? (?????????, 2009: 191).

???????
?? ??????? ??? Witcher,
Stevens
& Sanchez
??
?????? ??????? ????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???
?????????? ?? ?????????? ????, ???? ??????? ?????????? ??? ???? ??????? ???
????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ????????, ???????
????? ?????????????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ??????????, ?????????? ???
???????????, ?? ?????????? ??? ????????? ????????? ?????????, ????? ???????
???????????? ??? ???????????? ???? ??????? (????????????, 2003:187).

??
Wang,
Haertel
& Walberg
??
?????? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ???????? ???????? ????? ???????,
??????????? ??? ???? ????????? ??????????? ??? ????????? ???? ??’ ?,?? ? ???????
??????? ????, ? ???????????? ???? ????????? ? ? ??????? ??????????? (?????????,
2012: 38).

???????
?? ??? ???????????, ?? ????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????
??? ???????????? ??? ??????, ??? ???? ???? ???????????? ????? ??? ?? ??????????
???????, ??? ???? ? ????????????? ???????????? ??? ?? ??????, ??? ????????? ???
?????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ??????????? ?????? ????, ???? ????????????
?? ??????? ????????-??????, ???? ??? ?? ?????????? ????? ??? ?????
(????????????, 2003: 189).

????
?’ ??? ?????? ?????, ?? ????????????? ?????????????? ???? ??????? ???? ??
???????? ????? ??? ????? ?’ ??? ???????? ??????????, ????? ?? ?????????????
???? ?’ ???? ??? ???????? ????? (????????, 2001: 76). ????, ????????
??????????? ?? ?? ?????????? ?????????? ??? ? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?? ?? ???
????. ? ??????? ??? ????????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?? ????????? ???
??????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????????? ???. ???????, ? ?????? ?????????? ???
????????? ??’ ????? (????????, 2001: 77).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.4        ????????????? ????????????
???????? ??? ??????? ???????????

 

?
?????????? ????? ????? ??? ?????????????? ???? ???? ??? ????????? ???? ???????
?? ??? ?? ???????. ???? ??????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? ???????????
????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????, ? ????????????? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????? ??
????? ??? ????? ?? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????????? ????? ??? ??? ??????????????
?? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????????, ?? ?????? ??????????? ?? ?????????
?’ ??????. ???’ ???? ??? ?????, ?? ?????? ????????????? ?? ?????????? ???????
???? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ?? ???????????????
????, ??????????? ???????, ??????? ??? ????????????, ??????????? ???????
???????????????? ??? ???????????. ???? ??? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ??????????
???????????? ??? ????????????? ??????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ?????????
???????????? (????????, 2001: 56).

?????????,
??? ??????????????? ?????????? ? ????????????? ???? ??? ??????? ??????
????????????? ?? ?????????? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????
????? ???? ???????? ???????????? ???? ???????????? ????. ? ???????? ????????
???? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ?? ??????? ????????? ?????????, ??
???? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ?????????, ????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????
???????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ??????? ???? ????????? ????
??????????? ??? ???? ???????????? (????????????, 2009: 156).

????,
????, ?? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ????????, ?????????? ??? ?????????
????????????, ??????? ??????? ??????? ? ????? ????, ??????? ????????? ?????????
??? ??????????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ?????,
??????????? ??????? ???????, ??????????? ????????????? ??? ?????????? ???
????????????? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ??? ??????????. ?? ????????, ?????????  ??? ?????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ??????
????????? ? ??????????, ? ????????? ????????, ? ????????????, ? ????????
???????? ??? ??????????? ??? ? ??????? ?? ????? ??????????? ??? ?????? ?????
???????? ??? ???????. ???? ???? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????????????? ??????????,
? ?????????? ??? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ?? ????????? ??? ????????? ??
????? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ? ?????????? ??? ???????? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ???
???????? ??? ?????? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ???, ? ????? ???????? ??????? ??
?????????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ???? ????????????
(?????????, 2008: 235-236).