The human brain
consists of  about 90% of water. It is
roughly categorised into 3 parts: Cerebrum, Cerebellum and brain stem1. The
basic functions of these parts are to sense, control various activities such as
controlling secretion and maintaining the entire body function. Cerebrum, deals
with emotions, movement initiation, consciousness awareness of sensation.
Cerebellum, deals with muscle movement and balance maintenance. Brain stem,
controls heart regulation, respiration, and hormone secretion2. The brain is
most important part of the human body any kind of imbalance leads to various
diseases which can be long term or short term duration, curable or non-curable
depending on its severity. Some of the diseases related to brain are: Autism
Spectrum Disorder, Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia,   cerebral palsy, etc.

 

Autism is derived from
Greek word meaning “isolated self”. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a brain
disorder related to “Spectrum” of symptoms, such as incapability to understand
emotions and gestures, disconnected to people in surroundings, difficulty in
reading, writing and speaking, repetitive behaviour 6. This is usually a
non-curable disorder and is diagnosed in subjects above 1year of age. It can be
considered as a disorder rather than a disease; its diagnosis is difficult in
today’s time which is encouraging researchers in Signal Processing,
Neuroscience and Artificial Intelligence domain to detect in early stages and
prevent it from increase in its serverity. This disorder is increasing at an
exponential rate. According to reports of April 2017, by Centre for Disease
Control and Prevention(CDC), 1 in every 68 child 3 is detected with Autism
with boys to girls ratio being 4.5:1 2. Figure 1 shows the statistics of ASD
patients of various years according to the survey conducted by Autism and
Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM). ASD begin in childhood and continues into adolescence
and adulthood. While some people with ASD can live independently, others have
severe disabilities and require life-long care and support. Globally, access to services and support for people with
ASD is inadequate. It can be categorised into three types: Low functioning
Autism (LFA) or mild autism, Medium functioning Autism (MFA) or moderate autism
and High functioning Autism (HFA) or severe autism 

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