Abstract such as Just-In-Time(JIT) and logistic, to

 

Abstract

As Roads have much
importance in AJK because it connects districts of AJK and which further
connects AJK to Pakistan. In this case we focus on the Material Management in
construction of these Roads. The study Areas are the availability of material,
its management, cost, quality. Determination of material management was figure
out by analyzing the interview data. The result shows the concepts that have be
used in material management such are Just in Time and Logistics. Logistics
defines the comprise organization, coordination, planning and control of the materials
flow from the extraction of raw materials to the incorporation into the
finished building structure. The Just-In-Time method approach represents major
changes in management philosophy to reduce slack resources and responsive
organizational systems in place of highly structured, formal organizational
systems, and involve people at all levels in operations management and decision
making. The objectives of this study is to understand the current method in
material management such as Just-In-Time(JIT) and logistic, to know and
understand types of infrastructure project, to analyze the method that has been
adopted in these projects and to identify the material management method that
is used in a few infrastructure project in these district. The data is collected
and analyzed using a weighted mean method.

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Introduction

AJK is Disputed territory
with population and Roads are used for the defense purpose also so these roads
have much importance. The case study is about the Material Management in construction
of road in Ajk. Material management is a scientific technique, concerned with
Planning, Organizing & Control of flow of materials to ensure that the
right quality and quantity of materials is used, from their initial purchase to
destination. Materials management is explained as the purpose responsible for
the collaboration of planning, sourcing, moving, purchasing, storing and
controlling materials in an optimum manner in order to provide a pre-decided
service to the customer at a minimum cost. It is the system of supply chain.

The aim of Material
management is to get

Ø The
right quantity of supplies

Ø Right
quality

Ø At
right time

Ø At
right place

Ø For
the right cost

The aim of material management is to carry reserve
stock to avoid stock out, to gain economy in purchasing, to stabilize
fluctuation in consumption, to provide reasonable level of client services and
to satisfy the demand during period of replenishment.

 

OBJECTIVES

1.     Efficient materials planning

2.     Buying or Purchasing

3.     Storing and inventory control

4.     Procuring and receiving

5.     Supply and distribution of materials

6.     Good supplier and customer relationship

7.     Improved departmental efficiency

8.     Quality assurance

 

 

 

To
achieve all these objectives, it is mandatory to establish harmony and good
co-ordination between all the employees of material management department and
this department should have good co-ordination with the other departments of
the organization to serve all production centers.

Literature review

      Material
management can be defined as a process that coordinates planning, assessing the
requirement, sourcing, purchasing, transporting, storing and controlling of
materials, minimizing the wastage and optimizing the profitability by reducing
cost of material. Building materials account for 30 to 40 percent of the labor
cost, and remaining 60 to 70 percent of direct cost of a project or a facility.
The similar studies regarding this paper shows that material management is the
backbone of of construction industry. Researchers   Pande
and Sabihudd in Materials management and techniques incorporate that material
management is critical component of the construction industry. The summary of
this paper is the timely flow of materials and equipment to the jobsite, and
thus facilitate improved work face planning, increased labor productivity,
better schedules, and lower project costs. The portion of total cost of
material may be 52% of total cost; so that it plays vital role for contractor
to consider that timely availability of material is potential cause of successful
completion of project. Similarly, further Researchers – Patil and Pataskar,
Georgekutty and Georgemathew, Deepak and Kumar and Madhavi and Mathew  focus on material management to improve the
techniques and methods for the material management. According to studies
efficient procurement plays key role in completion of project timely. Effective
management also reduces the cost of the project. This paper also explores the
current practices of Material Managements.By material management project will
be complete, in time or complete at a later stage leaving cost and time overrun
and cost overrun is minimized. Generally projects with material management leds
to the gist of observation and gap identification in certain research areas. Therefore,
if the material management is not properly managed it will create a project cost
variance and the main problem of procurement is related to schedule delays and
lack of specified quality for the project. To prevent this situation, it is
often necessary to dedicate important resources like money, personnel, time,
etc. To monitor and control the processes, it is best to deal with the good
project manager.

 

 

Effects of Miss Material Management

The identified effects of lack of material management
were time overrun, cost overrun, dispute, arbitration, total abandonment and
litigation, as shown in Table 1.

Table
1. The Effects of miss material Management

Effects
of miss material Management

Rank

Time
overrun

1

Cost
overrun

2

Dispute

3

Arbitration

4

Litigation

5

 

Through questionnaire evaluation and empirical
methods, the effects of construction delays were assessed and the findings
showed that time and cost overruns were the most frequent effects of lack of
material management.

Minimizing lack of material management

A
questionnaire survey is used to collect data from construction practitioners.
The following are factors that can be applied as a method of minimizing
Material management delays: competent project manager,
multidisciplinary/competent project team, availability of resources, commitment
to projects, frequent progress meetings, accurate initial time estimates for
perfect material management, awarding bids to the right/experienced consultant
and contractor whose reputations are good, proper emphasis on past experience,
community involvement, systematic control mechanisms, effective strategic
planning, clear information and communication channels, use of up-to-date
technology, and use of logistics approach.

METHODOLOGY

A questionnaire survey is
developed to evaluate the perceptions of client, contractors and
consultants regarding the relative importance of the causes and effects of
Material management. The questionnaire was designed based on the factors
identified that contribute to material management. The questionnaire approach
was adopted because the study intends to capture the perceptions of various
stakeholders in consulting, contracting and client organizations and because
all factors needed to be assessed based on the same parameters that can be numerically
measured. The selected firms have records of experiencing material management
at some point in the past. Professionals in the construction industry were
identified as respondents in the research; therefore, the research population
comprised contractors, architects, civil engineers, builders and project
managers from the organizations selected for the study. The sampling method
adopted for this research work is the convenience sampling method.  Fifty copies of the questionnaire are
administered to 30 contractors,15 consultants and 5 clients to assess their
perceptions of the relative importance of the causes and effects of material
management, as well as ways of minimizing such delays. The questionnaire was
designed based on the factors identified from the literature review that
contribute to material management, the effects of material management and the
methods to minimize miss material management. 

 

Questionnaire Design and Method of Data Analysis

The questionnaire was
divided into three parts.  The first part
of the questionnaire focused on about material management. The respondents were
asked to indicate their responses to the mention data factors. The second part
of the questionnaire focused on profile of the company/organization. The third part
is about personal detail of respondent. A five-point Likert scale ranging from
1 strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) is adopted to capture the importance
of the causes and effects of delays. The transformed mean score for each factor
was calculated as follows:

MS=?Wi
Xi /?Xi 

 

 

where

Wi = the weight assigned to the ith response = 1, 2,
3, 4, 5;

 Xi = the
frequency of the ith response given as a percentage of the total responses

DATA ANALYSIS

Eight consultants,2 clients and 22 contractors
completed and returned the questionnaire, as shown in Table 3.

 

 

 

Table 3. Questionnaire Distribution

Respondent

Total
Administered

Total
Collected

Contractors

30

22

Consultants

15

8

Client

5

2

Total

50

32

 

Both consultants and
contractors ranked this group of causes very highly as compared to client.
Consultants and contractors are mainly concerned with technical and management
factors, such as inaccurate time estimates, inaccurate cost estimates, incompetent
project teams, poor site management and supervision, improper project planning
and scheduling, inappropriate construction methods and lack of competent
subcontractors.

 

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

This paper classifies the
main causes material management according to the sources of occurrence,
identifies the major factors contributing to those causes and then reveals
appropriate means of minimizing these delays. The major management delay groups
were identified contractor-related delay. The top five most important factors
that contribute to the causes of material management are insufficient amount of
equipment, inaccurate time estimates, monthly payment difficulties, change
orders and inaccurate cost estimates as well just in time approach for the
material management. The results of this research indicated that the five
principal and common causes of delays are poor site management and supervision,
unforeseen ground conditions, low speed of decision making involving all of the
project team, client initiated variations and necessary variation of the work
and lack of storage place and storage material theft fear. It should be noted
that poor site management is a contractor-related material management delay.
This fact implies that contractor-related material delays require adequate
attention because this delay type topped the principal causes of delay and is
still a very significant problem, as revealed by this study. The effects of
miss material management delays have also been identified. Time overruns and
cost overruns were the most common effects of material management delays in
construction projects in the construction industry. To minimize material
management delays in construction projects, the methods are ensuring adequate
and available sources of financing, use of a competent project manager,
availability of resources, frequent progress meetings and awarding bids to the
right/experiences consultant and contractor.

   

CONCLUSIONS

The construction industry
has a poor record for coping with material management delays as this plays
vital role in project. This study focused on material management delays with a
specific interest in a developing economy, in AJK. The outcome of this study
confirms the existence of poor material management in the study region. It can
therefore be said that a high importance was attached to each of the factors
identified; therefore, material management delay is one of the major issues
that needs urgent attention in the AJK construction industry.  Whenever a delay does occur, its implications
to the future performance of the project can be immediately determined and
corrective action can be taken to minimize any negative impacts on project
performance. The contractor is expected to have control over the material
management delays and, presumably, to do more to prevent them. Understanding
the underlying factors that contribute to causes of material management would
help identify and overcome the problems faced by contractors during the
construction process. Although several factors contribute to project delays,
the importance of material management factors explains that the contractor’s
willingness and interest play key role to control this factor .This study
therefore reveals that the strict application of effective methods of
minimizing material management delays, as outlined in an earlier section of
this work