Alan appraisal”, bringing together material from the

Alan Jenkins, 2013 in his paper “A Critical review of the work  on “The Social Context and Politics of
Appraisal”  Journal of Management Studies  has accomplished
a critical review of our knowledge of “the politics of performance
appraisal”, bringing together material from the different literatures
which have tackled this problematic phenomenon. The
special place of political action within these processes is underlined and the
different levels at which politics need to be considered in research are
outlined. Research on politics is considered and shown to lack an adequate
consideration of the social relations involved in the reciprocal interactions
between PA tools and processes and user’s interpretation and manipulation of
them.

Such a perspective
views management tools and systems as socially designed and highly influential
on the attitudes and behaviours of those using them but also – and crucially –
as malleable when users put them to use and “appropriate” them in their own
way. This review of the “social context and politics of performance
appraisal”, while not pretending in any way to be exhaustive, has
attempted to raise the essential questions that its analysis poses, to bring
together a variety of literatures, and to point out some of their strengths and
weaknesses. Emphasis was placed on two aspects of the overall area, each of
which has generated a distinct literature; on the one hand, the “politics of
diffusion and system change” and on the other “the politics of rating

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Dr.Lalita Mishra 2014  “A
Research Study on Employee Appraisal System Case of Hong Kong and Shanghai
Banking Corporation (Hsbc Bank)” International journal of Business and
management Invention has a view that
the employee appraisal system in Hong Kong and shanghais Banking Corporation
which is formerly known as HSBC Bank. The aim of the study involves in developing
the company as well as to satisfy the Employees and therefore, this research
study is conducted for the same reason of the effects of the appraisal system.
The aspect of human resources is the most important and vital part of banking
and service sector. The well efficient work force is needed in the industry so
as to grow in the competitive world. The objective of the study
is to analyse the overall system of performance management and system of
appraisal for the HSBC Bank. The study conducted in the bank for the context to
the satisfaction level of the workforce and it has to be maintained to evaluate
the performance of the organization repeatedly.

 

 

 

 

In this scenario HSBC
as a banking sector requires a coordination between the Training and human
resource management in order to achieve the purpose of the study. The performance
management of the company plays an important role for the implementation of
further plans within the organization. There are many theories that support the
motivational factor that which can be allied to the study and importance is
given to the training and development department in the organization. HSBC
executes these theories throughout the organisation. The proper significance of
these two factors can be understood by the data analysis part of the research
study. There is a requirement of performance appraisal and management for the
company but at the same time, it also has the requirement for money to invest
into the methods of appraisal and training development programs. The research work can be
conducted to identify the appraisal system of the Employee and other
implications for the commercial banks such as Dutch and Barclay’s bank for
Indian emerging market in which the research study also acts as a base for the
future research study. The case can be useful for the research study of various
companies. In the context of the research the success requires a process and
effect of appraisal system on Employee will require examining using the
attrition rate and other data of the organization.

 

Gerry Ledford, Ed Lawler, George Benson,
2016 “A study on cutting Edge Performance management Practices” at Centre
for Effective Organisation Performance Appraisals are an imperative part of HRM
systems within organisations. According to a study carried out by the Chartered
Institute of Personnel Development (CIPD), 81.3% of organisations surveyed were
carrying out performance appraisal in their organisation. A total of 60
completed surveys, 83% were returned completed. The findings of the study
revealed that overall the employees were happy with having to complete
performance appraisal, but there is still some work to be done in improving the
system and making it more successful and rewarding. There are a few elements of
the current system that are limiting the effectiveness of the appraisal; the
organisation is also missing some of the vital elements that are needed in an
effective performance appraisal. ‘Increasingly, companies are relying on their
human assets – the knowledge, competence and capabilities of the workforce – as
a source of competitive advantage’ .The assessment of employees’ performance is
one of the most common practices in almost every organisation, and so
performance appraisal is an essential procedure for the better performance of
employees and the organisation itself.

 Many new businesses and various organisations regularly
use a different performance appraisal scores determine the distribution of pay,
promotions, and other rewards provided a few organisations provide and also
evaluate how employee perceptions of performance appraisal impact the employee
attitude and performance. The researcher has conducted the dissertation on how
effective performance appraisals systems are for the employees who are involved
the appraisal. The Effectiveness of the appraisal system may else they would have
either a positive or negative effect on the employees and the organisation. The
aim of this study is to analyse the effects of the performance appraisal system
from employees’ view. The cause of ineffective appraisal is the dislike that
both the appraiser and appraisee have towards each other and the process.
Performance Appraisal remains as the most emotionally charged procedures.
Managers hate to give them and Employees hate to receive them. Many managers
and supervisors are unwilling to make accurate evaluations of subordinates
because they do not want them to be hurt. Where the consequence of a low
evaluation is termination, no pay increase, an unpleasant work assignment, or
no promotion, managers are reluctant to be precise highlights the importance of
giving appraisals based on facts, not just feelings and suggests the best way
to do this is by measuring performance by surveys, on the job observation, peer
group feedback and results against targets. This is important to consider in
establishing what an effective performance appraisal is. The appraisal will not
be accurate if the manager carrying out the appraisal is having difficulty in giving
feedback honestly and truthfully. Because of the emotional variability involved
in such processes, accuracy is something which will seldom be achieved.

 

The findings of
the research have shown that the Performance Appraisal system in the
organisation does contain many of the important elements that make the appraisal
system effective, but all these elements are intermittent and not present in
every appraisal that is carried out. The analysis of the survey responses has
revealed that according to the employees, Performance Appraisal is effective.
They system is a tool that motivates staff and improves their performance. The
organisations appraisal also includes majority of effective performance
appraisal objectives. Every system has its own flaws and needs a lot of
improvement to get it to where it has to be, as it is going in the right
direction and has some positive results.

 

 

 

Muhammad Zohaib Abbas IOSR Journal of Business and Management
in his paper titled “Effectiveness of performance appraisal on performance of employees” has
contributed to elaborate that how Pakistani organizations pursue performance
appraisal system. In this way, gap in literature has been filled regarding
performance appraisal in Pakistani organizations. The results of this study are
based on the survey findings conducted with employees of several organizations.
In this way, empirical contributions have been made by the researcher to
elaborate effectiveness of performance appraisal system and its impact on
performance of employees. The main objective of the study is to understand
effectiveness of performance appraisal in the organizations. Specifically,
factors influencing performance appraisal have been identified in the study.
Furthermore, this study also aimed to elaborate the influence of appraisal on
employee performance in Pakistani organizations. Finally, critical challenges
involved in the performance appraisal system will also be evaluated
appropriately. For collecting data, survey technique was used in this study.
For this reason, a sample was used in the study. This sample was selected from
different organizations of the Pakistan. This sample was selected from
different industries i.e. banking, manufacturing and services. In this respect,
non probability sampling technique was used in the study so that no preference
can be made in the sample selection. On this basis of non probability sampling,
a sample of 250 employees was selected from different organizations of
Pakistan.

 

The study was
based on the evaluation of effectiveness of performance appraisal in Pakistani
organizations. The study was conducted through survey analysis conducted with
the employees of Pakistani organizations. In addition to this, the results also
reflect that all study variables are significant except relationship among
peers and supervisors regarding performance appraisal process. The results of
the study provide strong understanding about that employees and their fair
perception about performance appraisal system. This reveals that respondents
think that performance appraisal outcomes are accurate and significant towards
employee performance. In conclusion, the study deduces and reflects that
performance appraisal impacts performance level of employees. The future
prospects of study reveal that its generalizability is low because of a small
sample. Therefore, future researchers have option of expanding the scope of
study by using the large and diverse sample. In addition, they can also
highlight differences in performance appraisal followed in different industries
of Pakistan.

 

Jean Thomas,
2006 in his Paper Titled “Performance Appraisal Effectiveness Analysis” by states
the function of performance appraisals is to help employees develop so they can
contribute more effectively. In order for the employees to develop and learn
they need to know what they need to change, where they have fallen short, and
what they need to do. If the supervisor assigns a not satisfactory on a scale
of 5, it does not convey much information to the Employee regarding the areas
of improvement. It just says the manager is dissatisfied with something. In
order to make it meaningful and promote growth, far more information must be
added to the appraisal process and the related information should be
transparently shared with the employee.

 

 It is important that when, looking at the
organizational climate, which means taking a closer look at what is happening
in and around in the HR scenario of the various organization. It is essential
to work on because this environment affects the organization and the employees
directly or indirectly. In order to develop employees and to make them become
effective contributors to the goals of an organization, we need to have a clear
view of what an effective contribution would look like. Organization climate
has a major influence on human performance through its impact on individual
motivation and job satisfaction. It does this by creating certain kinds of
expectancies about what consequences will follow from different actions.
Individuals in the organizations have certain expectations which depend upon
their perceptions as to how the organization climate suits to the satisfaction
of their needs and

Employees are the
valuable assets of any organization. The study is an attempt to a better
understanding of the various systems prevailing in the organization. Based on
the overall analysis it can be concluded that the good HRD climate was
prevalent in the organizations surveyed. For the organisation the Employees
Performance is important to focus on various aspects of the HRD climate and
other systems that are prevalent in the organization.

 

Dr.S.Jansirani “A Study on Performance
Appraisal System at Wipro Infrastructure Engineering Pvt Ltd” states that the
operative function in the human resource department are analyzed with the
contribution of employees and their opinion about the function performed by the
employees and their opinion about the function performed by the HR Department
in Wipro Infrastructure Engineering Pvt Ltd, Chennai. The employees in different
organization are interviewed and related data’s are collected through the tool
for research. The data’s are analyzed through the statistical methods like percentage
analysis and chi-square method.

From the statistical
inference were drawn, and based on the inference it is found that most of the
respondents fells that the performance appraisal system done by the
organization is comfortable and process is easier. From the study it is found
that they are enriching their knowledge with appraisal system and necessary
findings are made and suggestions were given. Within a short span of time the
employees are aware about the policies that are implemented by the Organisation
and also it gains the goodwill of the employees. Thus the study is mainly focus
on performance of the employee among executives, and their opinion efficiently
and effectively. The different parameters are framed in the ranking method of the
performance appraisal technique and group discussion can be made among and with
also various authorities. Secondly, the techniques used for performance
appraisal are very traditional which is to be modernized in future for good
prospect of the employees. Increase the awareness level of employees during the
performance appraisal period. It will be better if the management provides
incentives to employees so it will boost in their work and productivity and
also extend the probation period up to 2 years. Separate rating committee to be
fixed during the appraisal period. So that there is no rating biases and
personal prejudice will occur. The performance rating is very helpful for
management to provide employee counselling during the appraisal. Performance
appraisal is based on appraisal system and the rating method helps the HRD to
fix increment for workers and make them retained in the organization.
Supervisors should maintain cordial relationship with workers and offers
recognitions of the employee’s efforts and provide guidance to workers. During
the appraisal period provide a good communication between top management and
business goals to staff so that the desired target of the organization can be
achieved through performance appraisal. Employee comments and suggestion to be
considered during the appraisal. It will be better if the management provide
performance and potential appraisal rewards regularly.

 

Danny mackinnon “Learning, innovation and regional
development: a critical appraisal of recent debates” states that A resurgence of interest in the region
as a scale of economic organization has been apparent within economic geography
over the past decade or so. In view of the apparent shift towards a
‘knowledge-driven economy’, the capacity of regions to support processes of
learning and innovation has been identified as a key source of competitive
advantage. This paper provides a critical appraisal of recent work on
innovation, learning and regional development, situating this within its
intellectual context.

We need to focus on knowledge and learning
is highly relevant, much of the literature fails to adequately ground its
arguments in empirical enquiry and also tends to underemphasize the importance
of wider extra-local networks and structures. In conclusion, we offer some
directions for further research.

 

Dr.John Sullivan, “Top 50 Problems people face with the Appraisal”
states that the conversations with HR leaders and
employees, the talent management process that suffers from the most disdain
around the world is the performance appraisal. It’s one of the few processes
that even the owners of the process dread. If everybody hates the process, but
it still it’s done nearly everywhere, you might assume some kind of government
regulation that requires it, but in this case there is no such regulation. The
legal justification is given to and just in case for termination and other
disciplinary action is taken. In case of the justification used, no matter how
strong the design was and hence most performance appraisals are executed so badly
that they may actually harm a legal case. A major labour law firm was found
that among the random sample of performance appraisals conducted in a retail
environment, a majority would damage the employer’s case. Many organisations
ignore the effects of performance appraisals and later they realise through it,
but it’s hard to do but when the organisation finds out how incredibly the expensive
the process of Appraisal system can cause a major effect on the Performance of
the Employees. The Research findings, which includes a supervisors preparation
time, work time, HR processing time, opportunity costs, and advances in
technology, still puts the process cost at over very high for every employee
per year. If the organisation chooses to take on the challenge of changing the
employee’s performance appraisal process, the first step is to fully understand
the problems associated with the Appraisal system and the major impacts that it
can produce.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

1.     Alan Jenkins , A Critical review of the
work  on “The Social Context and Politics
of Appraisal” in Journal of Management Studies, Vol 26, No 5, pp 499-517

 

2.    
Danny
mackinnon “Learning, innovation and regional development: a critical appraisal
of recent debates” 2002 Volume: 26 issue: 3, page(s): 293-311

 

3.     Gerry
Ledford, Ed Lawler, George Benson “A study on cutting Edge Performance
management Practices: Ongoing Feedback , Rating Reviews, Crowd-Sourced Feedback
, Jan 2016 at Centre for Effective Organisations

 

4.     Dr.S.Jansirani
, ” A Study on Performance Appraisal System at Wipro Infrastructure Engineering
Pvt Ltd” IOSR journal of Business and management ,Volume 9, Issue  3     pp
08-23

 

5.     Jean
Thomas, “Performance Appraisal Effectiveness Analysis” in IOSR journal 2006

               Volume 30, Issue 8

 

6.     Dr.John
Sullivan, 2013 ” Top 50 Problems people faced with the Appraisal”

 

7.     Kumari
& Malhotra, “Analyzing the effect of Performance Appraisal Techniques in
Motivating employees in Reliance Jio” 2012 ISSN: 2454-1362

 

8.     Dr.Lalita
Mishra, ” A Research Study on Employee Appraisal System Case of Hong Kong and
Shanghai Banking Corporation(Hsbc Bank), International journal of Business and
management Invention, Volume 2, Issue 2 pp 60-67

 

9.     Muhammad
Zohaib Abbas, “Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal on Performance of Employees”,
IOSR journal of Business and management , Volume 16, Issue 6               pp 173-178