Australia a nation’s residents. (Mierlo et al.

Australia possesses social inequality due to the uneven
distribution of its resources. The social inequality within Australia will be measured
through earnings, where the dispersion of labour market incomes will define
social classes. This will be further explored through Karl Marx’s social theory
of class, sociologists measure of inequality, and the consequences of
inequality.

Earnings inequality within Australia can be identified
through Karl Marx’s social theory of class. Marx distinguished class by its
mode of production, such as the division of labour and earnings. The working
class is “exploited? and alienated from work produced by the capitalist
organisation that seeks profit (Andrew 1983: 577). These categories are
produced when repeated transactions across the boundary both regularly yield
net advantages to those on one side and reproduce the boundary. For example,
Australian mine owners don’t pay the hewers the value of their efforts.
Instead, they use the profit to reinforce the boundary between management and
workers. This alienation produces an inequality between the classes where power
and control are controlled by the upper-class society (Tilly 2005: 183). The
unequal dispersion of labour market incomes within Australia has consequently
created social inequality.

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Sociologists measure social inequality through multiple
qualitative and quantitative methods. The most widely used aggregated measure
of dispersion is Gini Coefficient which represents the wealth distribution of a
nation’s residents. (Mierlo et al. 2016: 3). HILDA survey data show that
Australia’s Gini coefficient was 0.303 in 2000-01 and 0.296 in 2014-15
(University of Melbourne 2016: 29-37). Although the Gini coefficient identified
Australia’s overall household income inequality has barely changed, the ABS has
identified that wealth distribution of Australia’s residents still indicates a
difference in social classes. The ABS also identified the labour market has
become more socially unequal through a sample (University of Melbourne 2016:
29-37). Therefore, sociologist’s measurements of inequality attest to the
notion that the dispersion of labour market incomes define social classes and
reiterate social inequality within Australia.

Australia possesses a wide variety of value-producing
resources that serve as bases of earnings inequality. Resources such as the
financial capital currently remain under the control of a small network of
persons, compare to Australia as a whole. This control has created unparalleled
potency in the production of inequality by those who control it and those who
do not (Tilly 2005: 184-188). For example, the working class have smaller
access to technology, education and information due to earnings inequality which
ultimately prevents them access to the same opportunities, qualifications and
earnings than those who control the financial capital (Tilly 2005: 188). Tilly
(2005) states that without access to these bases, persons are limited to social
change and are subject to social inequality (2005:188). Consequently,
Australia’s uneven distribution of earnings continues to create the social
classes and the earnings inequality.

Social inequality within Australia produces an
inequality of labour and earnings between the classes where power is controlled
by the upper-class society. Sociologist’s measurements of inequality attest to
the notion that the dispersion of labour market incomes define social classes
and reiterate social inequality within Australia. Consequently, the working
class are unable to break free from their inequality because their inequality
prevents them access to the same opportunities as the upper-class society.
Therefore, there is social inequality in Australia and it has social
consequences, as seen with earnings inequality.