of Leadership and Governance
Institute of Leadership and Good
Gebre Miruts (PhD)
‘Abegar’ System of Traditional Conflict Resolution: The case of Kallu Woreda,
By: Manaye Mesfin Amare
introductory part of my study will have some background information in which
some important concepts about traditional conflict resolution will be assessed.
Next to the background, I will go to statement of the problem in which the
problem under investigation will be presented. In addition, the introductory
part of my study will consist of research questions, objectives of the study, significance
of the study, scope of the study, limitations of the study. In the methodology
part I will show the research strategy, research design, data collection,
sampling techniques and Data analysis. In general, the study will focus on the
‘Abegar’ system of traditional conflict resolution in Kallu Woreda of Amhara
national regional state. Thus, the researcher will explore this traditional
conflict resolution mechanism including the main causes of conflicts, the types
of conflicts, and the role of the Abegars including women, how conflicts are
resolved, and the cultural values in the process of resolving conflicts in the
community of Kallu woreda.
of the study
is defined differently by different scholars. According to Nader,(1968)
“Conflict is an inevitable phenomenon in human society’s sphere of life since
the entire life of humankind is manipulated by the prevalence of conflict within
the society when people set opinion against opinion, run interest against
interests.” Ethiopia is a country in which various ethnic groups live together
for long period of time. As conflict is inevitable, these ethnic groups have
experienced conflicts of various types at different times. Each ethnic group
has its own mechanisms for solving conflicts. Gulliver (1979:1) states that
every society has its own mechanisms of handling disputes/conflicts. ‘Abegar’
is one of the traditional conflict resolution mechanism through which most of
the conflicts are resolved at local level.
Statement of the problem
Different conflicts or disputes among or
between individuals or groups are being settled through traditional conflict
resolution mechanisms. Traditional institutions work within the context of the
social values and socio-political organization of the concerned society and
thus they could effectively resolve conflicts that arise because of multiple
socio-cultural and economic factors (Adan and Pkalya 2006), as cited by Esayas
In Ethiopia, there are different conflict
resolution mechanisms. Different Ethiopian societies have also their respective
indigenous conflict resolution institutions and mechanisms of conflict
resolutions. They use their traditional mechanisms to deal with conflict which
are both inter-ethnic and intra-ethnic in nature (Esayas, 2015). For example;
Jarsabiyya of the Arsi Oromo people,
Yeager-Shimagle of the Amhara people, Yejewoka shengo of the Gurage people,
Deira Cimma the Wolayata people, the ‘Abegar’ especially in Wollo area of
Amhara and other traditional conflict resolution mechanisms are being applied
according to the cultural values of the society. The concern of my study will
be the ‘Abegar’ system of traditional conflict resolution in Kallu Woreda.
Hence, the research is expected to answer the following basic Questions:
What are the main
causes of conflict/disputes between individuals or group of individuals in
Kallu woreda of Amhara region?
How do women
participate in conflict resolutions?
How do the
Abegars resolve different conflicts in their locality?
What are the
types of conflicts among or between individuals and groups in Kallu Woreda?
are the resolved conflicts through the ‘Abegar’ system?
2.1.Objectives of the study
The general objective of the study will be
to understand the major causes of conflicts and how they are resolved through ‘Abegar’
system of traditional conflict resolution.
The study will be conducted to achieve the
following specific objectives:
To identify the
main causes of conflict/disputes between individuals and groups in Kallu
To describe the participation of women in
To explore the
ways in which Abegars resolve different conflicts in their locality.
the types of conflicts among or between individuals and groups in the Woreda
To assess the
sustainability of the resolved conflicts by the ‘Abegar’ system.
of the study
The study will
have the following significance:
The study will give detailed concepts
about the role of ‘Abegar’ in conflicts resolution.
The study is important to the low makers
and executives of security issues to strengthen the tradition conflict resolution
It can also be used as an insight for
further detailed investigation.
It can be used as a source for other
researches in the area.
2.3.Scope of the study
though the ‘Abegar’ system is used throughout all woredas of south Wollo zone,
the scope of study will be delimited both geographically and conceptually.
Concerning geographical delimitation, it will be sampled from eight rural
kebeles and one town kebele due to financial, time and other resource
constraints. As far as conceptual delimitation
is concerned, the research will focus on identifying the main causes of
conflicts and exploring how conflicts are resolved by the ‘Abegar’ system of
of the study
study will have some constraints. One of the main constraints that the study
will face is time constraint; the time allocated will not be enough for
effective data gathering and interpretation.
other constraint will be the problem of budget to run the study. In addition,
there may be problems in the side of the respondents; they may not be
cooperative to collect the data fully on the expected time because of different
reasons. Therefore, in general the research will not be free from constraints.
In this part of my study, I will try to put the
research strategy, the research design, sampling techniques, data collection
instruments, study area, the methods of data analysis.
The research strategy I will use in my
study is Qualitative strategy because qualitative research is best suited to
explore social phenomena. Therefore, Traditional conflict resolution mechanism
should be best studied using qualitative research strategy. “Qualitative research is preferred to collect data
about human life realities, experiences, behavior, emotion and feeling,
organizational function, social movement, cultural phenomena and their
interaction with nature” (Straus and Corbin 1998).
This study will be designed
to be exploratory research. This is due to the nature of the problem under
investigation. The problem needs in depth exploration of the ‘Abegar’ system of
traditional conflict resolution. Exploratory research is aimed at exploring all
sources of information based on range of evidences and by discovering new ideas
and using qualitative data. Therefore, this particular study focuses on
exploring experiences, ideas and perspectives of the people of Kallu woreda in
resolving conflicts through the ‘Abegar’ system.
3.3.Data collection techniques
To collect the
data for my study, I will use interview with Abegars, members of the security,
and community who are using ‘Abegar’ system. I also will use focus group
discussion to find relevant data to investigate the problem. In addition,
observation will be another technique which is used to get data during the
process of conflict resolution through the system.
will use purposive sampling techniques. In terms of sample size, the researcher
will conduct an interview with 10 people from the community, 6 from Milisha and
police officers and 9 from the Abegars from selected Kebeles. And FGDs will be
conducted from different target groups such as women, elders, youths, police
officers and with other local authorities. Each FGD will comprise ten
the research will be qualitative research and the data will be qualitative
data, the analysis will also be through qualitative data analysis method. After
the necessary data will be collected through the help of the above data
collection tools, the next task will be the categorizing, combining,
synthesizing, and thereby analyzing of the collected data qualitatively.
Adane, M. and Pkalya, R.
(2006). Conflict Management in Kenya: Towards policy and strategy
Formulation. Nairobi: Practical Action.
Gulliver, P.H. (1979).
Disputes and Negotiations: A Cross cultural Perspective. London:
Nader, Laura. (1968).
“Conflict: Anthropological Aspect.” In International encyclopedia of the
social Science: vol.3, pp.230-241. New York: Macmillan Company and Free
Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. M. (1998).Basics of Qualitative
Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. SAGE publications.
Esayas, A. (2015). Indigenous
Conflict Resolution Institutions: A Study among the Gofa People of the Demba
Gofa District, SNNPR.
MA Thesis: Addis Ababa University.