and Strategies for the Development of Muslim society”
development of an era is marked by the changes that occur over time that is
globalization. This increasingly changing globalization is caused by the human
mind. These changes are very influential on the social and cultural development
of society. Of course, they also cannot be separated from the Muslim community
that is trapped by the flow of globalization. In getting prosperity, it is very
difficult to resist the changes that occur in the current world of development.
The world of development today causes many changes from every aspect of life.
This change is inevitable because science and technology are increasingly sophisticated
over time. This makes the general public aware of the importance of science
mastery of science and technology to filter the impact of globalization that
continues to bring about changes in human life. Globalization is like two sides
of a coin. On the first side, changes in the impact of globalization have a
negative impact on people’s lives. For example, Muslim women’s clothing style
is now more follow the ongoing trend in the world, so the identity of Muslim
women who according to religious rules increasingly degenerate. Then, on the
second side, the era of globalization raises a positive side for people’s
lives. For example, Muslim societies can learn to control science and
technology in their lives and can communicate with other Muslims in different
this returns to our identity as Muslims, whether we follow the era of
globalization by not forgetting its identity as a Muslim or even allowing
identity to follow the flow of globalization. Surely we can confront the change
of globalization through various strategies in facing the impact of
globalization. With these strategies are intended to minimize the impact of
Muslim social change. This strategy covers several areas such as education,
politics, economics, etc.
development of globalization in bringing about change throughout the world has
led to various impacts on various aspects of human life. One of them is the
economy, which is an important aspect in people’s life that becomes the main
essential in a country. Economic aspect must be the biggest aspect influenced
by the emergence of globalization, not other areas such as social culture and
religion. This globalization of the economy causes interdependence in economic
and trade activities. This activity continues as the impact is increasingly
pervasive in society in general, so now there are no more restrictions or
obstacles in conducting economic activities. The existence of the system of
economic globalization gives two different impacts that is a positive and
negative. The positive impact on the globalization of the economy is that
consumers have a choice in buying more goods and can enjoy better and quality
goods at a cheaper price, indirectly thus causing the prosperity of society
within a country. Then, the negative impact is if in the long term this kind of
growth will continue to hamper economic growth and also can cause high
unemployment rate in a country. In fact, this condition makes social society
into a gamble in the life of the economy.
in the world generally follow the conventional economic system, but now the
Islamic economy is becoming increasingly widespread all over the world. One of
the adherents of the Islamic economic system or better known as ” economy shari’ah ” is the British state.
The country adopted the Islamic economic system so that it developed rapidly
and attracted the attention of other countries about the Islamic economy. The
economic crisis that has happened to the world a few years ago brought Islamic
finance into a world financial savior. Kamal Naser and Luiz Moutinho
(1997) claims that Islamic banks are more favored by the developed countries.
The difference that makes Islamic banks superior to God lies in the performance
of the money management system and evident in the past few years that many
non-Muslim countries have begun to adopt the Islamic economic system, emerging
rivalries from banks that initially embrace conventional systems today into
Islamic Shari’ah system. It makes a
big change of course, especially in the midst of the influence of globalization
that provides various impacts in the aspects of the world economy today.
Blad, Cory and Banu Koçer (2012) claims that the
existence of Islamic parties dominates politics in Turkey to be a talk among
scientists and steals the attention of several researchers residing in America
as well as Europe. The circulation of news about the welfare of politics under
the auspices of Islam gives a terrible effect on the world. The result that
brings the efficacy to the success of Islamic politics in Turkey is the effort
to defend state policy in this century of neo liberalism. Adjustment of neo
liberalism as a unity of political economy can reduce the fulfillment of the
country’s economy and the capacity of social services. The resulting impact of
the reduction made by the Turkish state is a saving of legitimacy in balance
with the national population which considers that the state is unable to meet
the previously stated economic protection requirements in exchange for
legitimate state support. In an effort to protect official authority, neo
liberalism states are forcibly forced to move beyond the stage of economic
protection and adopt as much cultural approach as possible. Their use with the
economic protection strategy of the period from 1945 to 1980 was with the use
of the Islamic system as a cultural policy strategy followed by its downfall in
1980 in Turkey.
Umer Chapra (1993) claims that there are four important elements of strategy:
1.1 Equitable Filtering of Excess
Umer Chapra (1993) claims that, the most important problem of economic
globalization symptoms is the loss of limitations. People are increasingly
competing in meeting their individual needs. The absence of filtering makes the
community happy in wasting resources for momentary satisfaction while the price
systematically is unable to turn on the filtering function so the mechanism
goes unevenly. Therefore, the religion of Islam provides a solution in this
problem that is by doing attitude screening in ensuring the mechanisms can run
evenly. This is done to arouse the public about the overly restrictive
intentions of using people’s perspectives by altering people’s mindset about
resources not as a mere fulfillment of satisfaction but as a basic need for the
welfare of society. This is done to minimize the impact of wasted resources for
desires made in the negative or even to spend resources for pleasure only. So
we must, we live in a simple state with a decent lifestyle. Many of the
positive gal that we can get in applying this strategy is the one that is no
longer wasteful or the use of resources is excessive or futile.
Umer Chapra (1993) claims that we as human beings must have a good of
motivation both from the outside and from the inside. Individual motivation is
very different, especially when it comes to personal interests. Most people
only think about what they want without paying attention to the impact of the
fulfillment of such wishes. Community does not know how to motivate themselves
about social interests through screening their own attitudes toward personal
interests did not produce satisfactory results. Referring to what Adam Smith
said that by giving the public the explanation that the personal interests that
exist within the human also help in the social interest, the community must
also turning these words into social interests may also affect the personal
interest of the human person. Therefore, both personal interests and social
interests can work together well in this economic aspect. Islam is not a
religion of restraint, but Islam is helping us in limiting in good terms.
Prevention of Islam in this stage is to improve together without preventing or
inhibiting human beings in fulfilling their personal interests.
1.3 Socio-economic Restructuring
Umer Chapra (1993) claims that, this strategy we can see in everyday life how
the state of the social environment can affect the interests of the human
person. Societies derived from moral and high will desire to impact the problem
in the social economy. People are less aware of the pa they have done cause the
social economic mechanism is not conducive and make social strata peaked. The
environment makes society neglectful of social views, where the rich are
competing to follow the trend unknowingly with the flow of globalization that
turns them into a greedy and self-serving humanity. While on the other hand,
low-class society is busy working to meet the needs principal. It is the
unconsciousness that leads to the reconstruction of the social economy so that
the interests of various groups of society can be generalized and without
exaggeration. It is intended that every human being can prosper the social
economic environment without following the trend of every time. Islam embraces
a high justice system and provides welfare impacts in stabilizing the economy.
Therefore, it is appropriate that we realize and begin to sort out the
resources we need not what we want.
Umer Chapra (1993) claims that the restructuring must address itself to:
in terms of development aspects that can play an active and constructive role.
production tools as best as possible in order to improve in the aspect of
resource allocation and distribution.
all unnecessary consumption in order for savings in fulfillment of needs and
the financial system through mutual play a role in its performance and
reconstruct economy social.
1.4 Role of the State
Umer Chapra (1993) claims that, in this strategy the role of the state
apparatus is also needed. Governments granted authority as intermediaries of
the community must act quickly in stabilizing economic conditions. The role of
the government must be positive in helping the social economic conditions of
society. This role reinforces the fundamentals of Islamic values ??that
complement the creation of a good social, economic, socioeconomic environment,
the development of structured development, the control of the waste of
resources, and not limited to the community but gives a clear explanation so
that people are able to understand the condition of the economy more good.
Islam upholds social among fellow to share and the role of Islamic economy must
be appropriate goals oriented to the social economic community.
problem of globalization is very influential on the political aspects in a
country. Globalization fosters a democratic, open, clean, and authoritative government.
The effect of globalization has, of course, also had a negative and positive
effect on people’s lives, as it connects between government and society, which
aims at a policy-making process and a binding decision on the common good that
resides within a particular region. In addition, the globalization of politics
or global governance is the process of entry of a new pattern or values that
are accepted as a whole because it benefits politics, such as inter-state
political cooperation by forming a multilateral international organization,
2.1 Revitalizing the Islamic view
now Islam is better known in terms of ritual than with Islamic involvement in
all aspects of life, such as unemployment, air pollution, global warming, etc.
Mandavelle(2007) claims that a country with a majority of Islam is concerned
with their political world. There are several conditions concerning Islamic
politics, among them is the understanding of textual theology or the election
of new members of the power of religion and secular experience of human life
often makes the religion far from the world of politics.
2.2 Building Muslim political unity
decline of support for Islamic parties is due to a split by the Muslims
themselves. Islamic parties are formed in groups making the Muslim community
have neither the same idea nor the mutual support of one another. However, it makes
Islamic politic chaotic, especially with the era of globalization that affects
all aspects of life is no exception to the political aspect. Therefore should
be in facing the era of globalization is very risky if fellow Muslims do not
cooperate with each other.
2.3 Solve actual problems
must be able to solve problems that are outside the religious issue. The inability
issues of Islamic parties to solve real problems in society, such as global
warming, poverty, unemployment, and others. It causes the public to simply assume
that Islam only solves the problem of religion alone. Although other common
parties have similar conditions but they are able to present themselves more
attractively so that the real problems facing the community are responded to
quickly and better. That is what caused the Islamic political party is
increasingly declining until now.
is a very important factor in human life. Education can be interpreted as a
place where people can share knowledge with others and assisted by the presence
of educators who will provide new knowledge not previously obtained from the
family and the environment. Education has a high value in aspects of life
because science is needed as the next generation of the nation today.
Especially when the current globalization that gives impact to science, which
in the present condition human beings are required to know the science and
technology so as not to be left behind with the development of the times.
Education is generally divided into three types: formal, non-formal and
informal education. The difference between the three types of education lies in
the conditions under which learning and learning takes place. Formal education
is a learning activity that is obtained at an educational institution officially,
such as schools and universities. In contrast, non-formal education is a
teaching-learning activity that is acquired without going through an official
institution, such as training institutions and study groups. Then the last is
informal education is teaching and learning activities conducted independently
in the family and environment, such as early childhood education and
in Islam also teaches about the importance of science both for the individual
and for the country. Many Muslims today are studying in Europe and abroad for a
range of knowledge. Islam is not limiting but enriches us to the good of all
things we do not yet understand. The Islamic inquiry begins with the mother who
is the first “madrasah” in her
child’s life. Therefore, education based on the environment and family that can
guide the child can encourage the child to study harder to achieve dreams in
the future. This certainly does not escape with the impact of globalization on
education now. Mawardi Pewangi (2016) claims that the steps in preparing the
strategies that need to be taken in the face of the challenges of globalization
mentioned above have made us an educated Muslim to face globalization through
strategies that will improve the structure of Islamic education beginning with
the internal part, there are:
Resolving the problem of dichotomy (theology)
this step of strategy, the question of the dichotomy or theology of theology of
religion and science that presents the dualism education is Islamic education
and general education. A dichotomy is a theological concept that makes people
claim something from two aspects, such as body and spirit, religion and common,
etc. Dichotomy and dualism is an issue that has been unresolved to date. As time
went by, various terms emerged to justify the dichotomous view. For example,
religious schools and public schools, general faculties and religious
faculties, etc. This dichotomy suggests that general education is an ongoing
education without any element of religious relevance, whereas religious
education is an education that takes place in the absence of an element of
interconnectedness knowledge and technology. So now we can say that Islamic
education leads to the phase of preparation between two aspects of general
science and religion.
3.2 Revitalization of purpose and
functions of Islamic educational institutions
educational institutions need to reconstitute their goals and functions. Azyumardi
Azra (1999) claims that there are several models of Islamic education in
a. Islamic education is for religious education
alone to prepare and present “ulama”
in order to be able to overcome the actual or contemporary problematic
according to the rapid development of today.
b. Islamic education that composes the curriculum
with the materials of general education and religion as a goal to prepare
intellectual Muslims who are able to think comprehensively, such as “madrasah”.
c. Islamic education adopts a separate model of modern
education and fills it with Islamic concepts, such as Islamic schools.
d. Islamic education rejects the Western education
system. This makes the education of Islam should make the original model of
education taken from the basic concept of Islam and also able to adapt it to
the socio-cultural environment of Indonesia.
Religious education is not
implemented in school activities but is carried out outside of school
activities. This means that religious education is carried out in the home or
neighborhood of the surrounding community which can provide religious
Curriculum reform (materials)
education materials are dominated by normative, ritual and eschatological
issues. Malik Fajar(1998) claims that Islamic education is spreading in the
spirit of religious orthodoxy with no gaps for critical review. Islamic inquiry
is not functional in everyday life, except in ritual verbal and formal
activities. Based on the development of science, various problems began to
emerge clearly cannot be addressed only with the sciences that had been in
educational institutions such as fiqh, tasawuf, aqidah akhlak, etc. Researchers
and Muslim educators need to develop Islamic scholarship in the era of
globalization. Thus, the development of science will be able to overcome the
actual problems surrounding global warming, air pollution, unemployment,
corruption, social environment, human rights, etc.