In YouTube as a media in teaching

In
this chapter the researcher describe some supporting theories as basic
understanding of doing this study. Each of these are presented below:

A.     Review
of Previous Relevant Studies

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The first previous study was conducted by Afiqah Abd
Aziz, Melor Md Yunus, and Jamaludin Badusah (673-681). This study entitle The Effectiveness of YouTube English Song
Towards Students Vocabulary Competency. This study used quantitative
research design. The subject of this research is student from a school in
Negeri Sembilan. The findings showed that the YouTube song are used for
teaching vocabulary. By using YouTube as a media in teaching vocabulary, the
students become active learners. Students who used English Songs in YouTube
proved that after they were given treatment the students vocabulary were
better.

The second previous research from thesis article was
conducted by Dita Fitri Agasty Sofiana (2015) entitled The Effectiveness of English Song to the Students’ Vocabulary
Achievements the Eighth Grade in SMPN 2 Kepung. The research use
research  experimental that is
pre-experimental designs. This research was found that using song to the
vocabulary of the students can be increased. The
activities of the research started from giving pre-test, doing treatment, and
giving post-test to the students. The result after taught by using song in post-test by the
total score was 2250, the score of frequency
was 30, and mean of  post-test was 75, it
means that in the post-test indicate students’ score
began to rise for the better. The conclusion of this study can be indicate as
follows, one of the ways to make the teaching vocabulary effective is using
song, by use of media in learning vocabulary, the song is one of the media used
by teachers in helping students to stimulate the imagination of students where
in the song there are a meaning such as collocation, affixes, synonyms,
antonyms connotation and denotation.

The third previous research from Journal
of CPLT: Creative Practice in Language Learning Teaching was conducted by Iman
I A Shehadeh & Mohammed A A Farrah (2016: 44-60) entitled The Effectiveness of Using Children’s Dongs
in Developing Elementary Grade’s English Vocabulary and Pronunciation in
Jerusalem, Palestine. This study investigating the effect of using
children’s song in developing the elementary graders’ vocabulary and
pronunciation. Other hand, this study also to investigate teachers’ attitudes
towards  the use of songs in their
English classes. Study data collected by students’ pre and post-test and
teacher questionnaire. The result of this study showed that the students
improved their vocabulary and pronunciation due to the use of songs in
learning.

The fourth previous research from ELT
Voices-International Journal for Teachers of English was conducted by
Gareebullah Hago Hamdoun Mudawi, Ph.D (2015: 51-62) entitled Using Rhymes and Songs for Teachong Core
Vocabulary to Elementary School Students. In this study, there are two
group. The first group as the experimental group which consists of the girls at
6th grade and the second group as the control group which consists
the boys in the same grades. The result of this study indicates that using
songs and nursey rhymes to teach core vocabulary to the young learners at
elementary school is very effective to help learners memorize a lot of core
vocabulary.

The fifth previous research from thesis
was conducted by Febria Afia Rahmah (2015) entitled The Effectiveness of Using English Songs from YouTube Towards Students’
Vocabulary Mastery. The research belongs to quasi-experimental which the
subject is the sevent grade in the Islamic Junior High School. This research
use pre-test and post-test for gaining the data. Furthermore, the researcher
also collected data by using interview. The finding of this study shows that
teaching vocabulary by using English songs from YouTube are effective in
improving students’ vocabulary mastery.

 

B.     Theoretical
Framework

1.      Theory
of Vocabulary

a.       Definition
of Vocabulary

As explained in the
background of the study, vocabulary is an important aspect of knowledge.
Vocabulary takes such a fundamental role to be mastered English as foreign
language well. A good vocabulary is essential to be fluent in any skill. There
are some definitions of vocabulary proposed by some experts.

Vocabulary as the total
number of words in a language and vocabulary as a list of word with their
meanings (Hornby, 1995, as cited in Alqahtani, 2015). In addition, Burns (1972)
defines vocabulary as the stock of words which is used by a person, class or
profession (as cited in Alqahtani, 2015).

Furthermore, Ur (1998)
vocabulary can be defined, roughly, as the words we teach in the foreign
language (as cited in Alqahtani, 2015). From the explanation above, it can be concluded
that vocabulary is a meaningful words used by people in communicating.

 

b.      Vocabulary
Mastery

To
master a language, it is important for students to master vocabulary. The
purpose of mastering vocabulary is to enrich the students’ word. The rich vocabulary
mastery can attribute to being better in the language skill.

Vocabulary
is one of the language aspect that should be learnt.  According to Hornby (1995) defines mastery as
complete knowledge or complete skill (as cited Alqahtani, 2015).

From
that definition, mastery means great skill which makes someone a master in a
certain subject.

c.       Kinds
of Vocabulary

Hatch and Brown (1995, as cited in Alqahtani, 2015), indicate two
kinds of vocabulary, namely receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary;

a.      
Receptive vocabulary is
words that learners recognize understand when they are used in context, but
which they cannot produce. It vocabulary that learners recognize when they see
or meet in reading text but do not use in speaking and writing (Stuart Web, 2009).

b.     
Productive vocabulary is the
words that the learners understand and can pronounce correctly and use
constructively in speaking and writing. It involves what is needed for
receptive vocabulary plus the ability to speak or write at the appropriate time.
Therefore, productive vocabulary can be addressed as an active process, because
the learners can produce the words to express their thoughts to others (Stuart
Web, 2005)

 

d.      The
Importance of Vocabulary

According
to as stated in Thornbury (2002: 13), ‘without grammar very little can be
conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.’ It means, it is useless
for spending of time only studying grammar because it will not improve our
English very much. Different with learn more words and expression, we can say
anything with words.

 

e.       Teaching
Vocabulary

Teaching vocabulary is an activity where the teacher gives
the student knowledge about vocabulary and how to use it in daily life. The
purpose of teaching vocabulary is to make the student know the aspect of vocabulary.
The students will know more about what vocabulary is, how to learn and how to
use it. If the students know more vocabulary, they will be easy to learn
another aspect of English language.

There are some
techniques and procedures based on Thornbury (2002: 75-92):

a)      Presenting
vocabulary

Teacher presentation
which learners are taught vocabulary items.

b)      Using
translation

Teacher presenting the
meaning of a word in monolingual classes.

c)      Illustrate
the meaning

It is an alternative to
translation which presents with concrete objects  to demonstrate them.

d)      Explain
the meaning

Teacher clarifying
meaning include; providing an example situation; giving several example
sentence; giving synonyms, anthonyms; and giving full definition.

e)      Highlight
the form

Teacher is drawing
learner’s attention to the way the word sound.

f)       
Involve the learners

Learners need to be
actively involve in the learning.

 

2.      Teaching
Media

a.       Definition
of media

Media
are defined by Sadirman et al (1986, as cited in Sukmahidayanti, 2015) as anything
used to send information from the sendres to receivers to arise learners’
curiosity and encourage them to learn.

b.      Function
of media

Media can be selected
as the case may be to make optimum contribution in teaching learning. According
to Eze (pp. 3), the function of media as follows:

a)      Media
help student teachers to acquire necessary professional (teaching) skill.

b)      Media
make learning real and meaningful.

c)      They
improve the quality of teaching and learning.

d)      They
stimulate and sustain learners’ interested.

 

3.      Song
as Teaching Media

a.       Definition
of Song

In
this study the researcher choose song because it can be a ways in teaching
English to the students with pleasure activities. Doren in Andianto (2010, as
cited in Faliyanti, 2017) states that song is a short musical work set to a
poetic text, with equal importance given to the music and the words. Furthermore,
Paul (2003: 58) states that songs add a whole dimension to children’s classes,
and make it easier for the children to remember words and patterns and natural
chunks of language

The
songs for children contain simple vocabulary and usually the song is contain
about object around so that the students familiar English word. By using song
student can enjoy the lesson and it help the students easy to memorize
material.

 

b.      The
Advantages Using Songs in the Classroom

The
possibilities of using songs in the classroom might not be aware by some
teachers. Stanislawczyk and Yavener (1976, as cited in Anna Kusnierek, 2016) said
that a song is an advantageous tool and a teacher should take advantages during
practice. Activities which are conducted with the use of the edutainment method
are done in an enjoyable way and this is why teaching with use of music is the
combination of the words education and entertainment (Okan 2003, as cited in
Ana Kusnierek, 2016).

 

4.      Teaching
English to Young Learners

a.       Young
Learners

According
to Pinter (2011, as cited in Sukmahidayanti, 2015) categorizes young learners
into three groups of age: (1) pre-school; (2) primary school years; and (3)
early adolescents. In the stage of pre-school, children are aged 3-5 years old.
The next is primary school years which includes children who are aged 6-12
years old. In the level of primary school, children attend elementary school.
The last is early adolescents which children leave their elementary school.

 

b.      Characteristic
of Young Learners

Young
learners have their own characteristics which different from adults. The young
learner’s characteristics cover their attitude, the way of thinking, etc. The
teacher should know and understand their characteristics to give the best
method or quality in teaching English to the children.

Therefore,
the researcher explains more about characteristics of young learners that seem
to affect in learning English especially vocabulary. According to Jean Bewster
et al (2004: 27-28), young learners are different from older learner because
young learners:

a)      Learn
more slowly and forget things quickly

b)      Get
bored easily

c)      Can
concentrate for a surprisingly long time if they are interested

d)      Can
be easily distracted but also very enthusiastic.

e)      Have
a lot of physical energy and often need to be physicallyactive

According
to Eva (2006: 10) said that the intelligence of young learner may be a major
factor in the acquisition of vocabulary. Young learner who have high
intelligence can learn more because they have the capacity. The other personal
factor is about the health of the young learner. A student who is generally in
good health will not miss the school. If the students an unhealthy students may
miss the school and the classes.  On the
other hand is the mother tongue of the students. English become difficult
subject, as it is a foreign language, the students finds difficult to follow
the class after missing the classes. If there is no one help the students to
understand what he missed, the young learner feels bored due the inability to
follow.

 

C.     Conceptual
Framework

Based on the explanation above, it can be concluded
that vocabulary is an important thing in learning English. Vocabulary one of
the elements to produce language. In teaching English to young learners,
teachers should apply a media in teaching-learning process. By using media, it
makes the students fun and enjoyable in learning English.

Media helps students to learn English in effective
way and it has become one factors which hold important roles in teaching
English to young learner. Using song is an appropriate method in teaching
English especially vocabulary to the third grade students in elementary school.
Song is an interesting media in learning vocabulary and it is easy for the
students to learn.