4.0: It is current trend name of automation and data
exchange in manufacturing technologies. It contains Cloud computing, Internet
of things, cognitive computing and cyber physical systems. Cyber systems learn
and control processes of machines to create virtual copy of physical world and
make decentralized decisions. Through internet of things, cyber-physical
systems communicate and cooperate with each other and with humans in real time.
Industrial 4.0 has certain design principles.
Interoperability: Ability of sensors, devices and
machines to connect and communicate with each other through internet of things.
Information transparency: The ability of information
systems to convert sensor data into high value digital data.
Technical assistance: First, the ability of the
assistance systems to aggregate and visualize data and make knowledgeable
decisions solving urgent problems in short notice there by helping humans. Second,
cyber physical systems ability to conduct unpleasant or unsafe tasks to help
Decentralized decisions: Cyber physical systems
ability to make own decisions and perform tasks automatically.
Modern technologies like big data analytics will help
early prediction of defects and manufacturing failures, thus enabling their
prevention and increase productivity and quality that has significant
competitive value. As more industrial big data sits on the floor all around the
world and manufacturing industry develops huge network, all these intelligent
manufacturing systems consider big data before making any decisions which helps
the systems to make more informed decisions.
of Things (IOT): It is network of physical devices, home
appliances and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors,
controllers and network connectivity which enables these objects to connect and
exchange data. It allows objects to sense and control remotely through existing
network infrastructure creating opportunities for more direct integration of
physical world into computer-based systems resulting in improved efficiency,
economic benefit in addition to reducing human intervention.
The background technology for Internet of things are
classified under their accessibility reach and form of connectivity.
Short range wireless
Radio-frequency identification: It uses
electro magnetic field to read data stored in embedded tags of electronics.
Wi-Fi: Local area networking where
electronic devices can communicate through shared access point.
Medium Range wireless
LTE: High speed communication for mobile
Long range wireless
Very small aperture terminal: Satellite
communication technology using small antennas for broadband data.
Ethernet: General networking standard
using fiber optic links and switches.
Power line communication: Communication
technology using electrical wiring to carry power and data.
physical systems: It is mechanism that is controlled and
monitored by computer-based algorithms integrated with internet and its users. Examples:
Autonomous automobile systems, process control systems and robotic systems.
There is lot of research currently going in mobile
cyber physical systems. Mobile cyber physical systems include mobile robotics
and other mobile electronics. There is a huge scope for mobile cyber physical
systems development because of the following reasons.
Many communication mechanisms such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth
to share data between interconnecting devices or internet. Multiple sensor
devices and rapid development of Cyber physical systems programming languages