The silicon nanorods, nanoparticles and nanorwires to

The appearance of anode materials
as major theme in this analysis proves that a lot of effort has gone into
increasing the capacity of LIBs. Researchers agree that progress in battery
materials will determine the extent to which EVs will compete with ICE vehicles
in terms of safety, driving ranges, and refueling or recharging.  Much of the ongoing research on anode
materials has been focused on increasing the surface area on the negative
electrode in order to increase the power density. To achieve this, a variety of
anode active materials have been explored including silicon and carbon. As previously
mentioned, silicon is a promising anode material due to its remarkable ability
to store lithium. A lot of research has gone into manufacturing and synthesizing
silicon-based materials for LIB anodes.  According
to (Li, Li, Adair, Sun, & Yu, 2017), not only do carbon nanofibers have excellent electronic
conductivity, they have an excellent capability to store lithium. This makes
carbon nanofibers an excellent alternative as anode materials for LIBs.

Porous silicon is also a promising
anode material for LIBs. Due to the expansion rate of silicon during cycling,
many researchers have explored the use of silicon nanorods, nanoparticles and
nanorwires to reduce the level of stress. Among these nanostructured silicon
materials, porous structure and coated conductive carbon layer have been
demonstrated as one of the most promising anodes.  This is because the void space can partially
accommodate the large volume change of silicon while the carbon layer can
increase the electronic conductivity and alleviate mechanical stress of the
electrode composites (Ren
et al., 2016). The principal challenge regarding these silicon
nanostructures is manufacturing them on a large scale for commercial

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The development of active materials
for LIBs is also an important theme in this research. As the name suggests,
active materials are the chemically active components of the electrodes and the
electrolyte between them (Goodenough, 2012).
Under the active materials theme, the most prevalent topic relates to cathode
active materials. Originally, the primary cathode active component was cobalt.
Now, however, there are multiple cathode active materials being developed in
the battery industry. For instance, today a lot of batteries for EVs make use
of nickel as the active part of the positive electrode (see Blomgren, 2017)