Wheat taken to have massive production to

Wheat
is one of the main staple crops of Pakistan and pays largely in the economy as
well. With the emergent need and less productivity of wheat, numerous steps
must be taken to have massive production to fulfill the necessities of the
country. In the present study, hydro-priming will be used as the seed treatment
to check its outcome on the germination of seed and quality of the plant
obtained from it. Water as priming agent will be collected from different localities
of Punjab. Present study will not only obtain the quality of the water present
in particular district but will also be helpful in finding its particular
effects on the germination of wheat seed in that area. In future this study
will be helpful in obtaining proof with respect to different constituency
waters and the varieties used in this investigation and will be helpful for
investigators and the common man to adopt tactics to grow wheat in that
particular area.

 

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Wheat
(Triticum aestivum L.), belongs to
family Poaceae (Cope, 1984). One third of the world population use wheat as a
major food source. About 80% of the foodstuff is obtained from the cereal crops
and wheat constitutes a major portion of it. Wheat is cultured globally in about
27 countries of the world (Stubbs et al., 1986). Major wheat cultivating
countries include; Australia, U.S.A, Ukraine, Turkey, Russia, Canada, China,
E.U., India and Pakistan (FAO, 2003).

 In wheat cultivation Pakistan ranks are on the
8th position. Wheat plays a key role in the economy and is the most
substantial agricultural unit of Pakistan as it chip in about 14.4% to the
total crop sector and 3.1% to total domestic production. In many industries it
is used for synthesis of many by products and also as a raw material. 44% of
the total production is mainly contributed by Southern Punjab (Ahmad et al.,
2005).

Pakistan is the Asia’s third-largest
producer of wheat in the world with the production of 25.5 million ton in
(2015-2016) Wheat is the major agriculture crop in Pakistan grown by 80 % of
farmers grow it on an area of nine million hectare which is around 40% of
cultivated land. It added 10% of value added in agriculture and 2.1% in GDP
(2015). Pakistan’s population mainly based on wheat grain flour so any shortage
in wheat production or supply to local market can cause problems for the people
(Noorka and Shahid, 2013).

The population of the world is increasing
day by day about an estimate it will reach to about nine billion by the coming
year 2050 (Cleland, 2013), The thing to be needed is to cultivate and produce
more wheat while keeping in mind about the safety of the wheat crop. Due to
different strategies and cultural practices difference in production of wheat
between developed and developing countries occur. (Ahmad et al., 2013).

In future
when the population will be increased and the yield of wheat may be low so to
fulfill its
shortage it is necessary to increase the production of wheat and to protect it
from different diseases.  Its safety can
be achieved by protecting it from all biotic and abiotic factors. (Chatrath et
al., 2007). A random
nutrient distribution has been observed in wheat grains as the germ is moderately
loaded with vitamins, scutellum is rich in thiamine; large concentration of
phytic acid, vitamins and proteins is present in the external layer and lots of
proteins and starch are occupied in inner endosperm of the grain (NARC
Islamabad, 1984).

Seed
priming is the controlled hydration process which enhances pre-germination
activities of seed but no radicle emergence is observed (Bradford 1986). Different
priming mediums can be used for the seed priming. For example water, salt
solutions, solid matrix, polyamines and plant growth regulators (Basra et al.,
2006). Following the priming process, removed seeds are rinsed twice or thrice
and dried with the help of forced air (Giri and Schillinger 2003) so that they
can be handled in usual routine.

Seeds
which are primed, show better germination percentage (Afzal et al., 2006) and
uniformity (Farooq et al., 2006). Molecular, physiological and biochemical
changes are proved to be the reason for better performance of seed (Sung and
Chang 1993).

OBJECTIVES

·        
To study the effect of different
district water on germination of different wheat seed varieties.

·        
To find the suitability of different
wheat varieties in relation to different regions.

·        
To check the parameters of the seedlings
of different wheat varieties.

 

 

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Murungu
(2011) conducted experiments on wheat varieties to study the effects of seed
priming on germination of seed and emergence of seedling. Experiments focused
on determining the effects of water potentials and optimum duration of seed
soaking for the maximum emergence. Resultantly priming proved to be a factor
beneficial for lowering the time of emergence and showed positive results in
germination too.

Muhammad
et al. (2011) investigated the
effects of priming of seeds with polyamines and then re-drying them to check
further benefits. Four solutions were selected for trial purpose i.e aerated
spermidine solution, spermine, distilled water and putrescine. Two sets of
seeds were primed separately. One set was surface washed thrice, with distilled
water and dried closer to original moisture and the other set was used
immediately after surface drying. Use of surface dried seeds proved to be more
effective.

Jafar
et al. (2012) conducted tryouts in
saline field to test the potential of seed priming practices on wheat
varieties. Ascorbate, salicylic acid, kinetin, CaCl2 and salicylicate were used
for seed priming of wheat seeds. Then the comparison was made with hydro-primed
seeds. They concluded that osmopriming with CaCl2 was more effective in gaining
high yield of grains.

Harris
et al. (2001) used seed priming procedure
in different areas of Nepal, India and Pakistan and concluded that the time
taken for 50% germination of wheat seeds was almost halved and farmers reported
that they had better foliage development after seed priming but they
practically faced several difficulties in priming the seeds in larger volume.

Ghana
and William (2003) conducted experiments on two cultivars of winter wheat
namely Edwin and Madsen under laboratory conditions, field and greenhouse
setup; to check the effect of seed priming on the emergence and yield of the
wheat crop in low drizzle dryland areas. Polyethylene glycol, potassium
chloride and water were used as priming agents in the greenhouse. They established
that seed priming has circumscribed practical effect on enhancing the yield and
emergence of winter wheat in unused summer land.

Farooq
et al. (2008) accompanied a study to
check the result of different seed priming techniques on the performance of
late sown wheat crop. Different plans including hydro-priming for 24 hours,
on-farm seed priming, osmohardening with CaCl2 or KCl for 12 hours and seed
hardening for 12 hours were applied. Positive effect on harvest index, straw
and grain yield, number of tillers, stand establishment and allometry was
observed but number of spikelet, plant height and 1000 grain weight were not
affected by these techniques.

Iqbal
et al. (2013) studied the effects of
seed priming on poor quality seeds of wheat. They harvested the seeds from the
wheat crop sown in November and December and primed them with CaCl2 for 12
hours. The results they drew were in favor of seed priming as the seeds of poor
quality when primed, performed relatively better in field conditions.

Farooq
et al. (2012) primed the wheat seeds
with ascorbic acid to check if it affects the drought resistance of the seeds. They
drew the conclusion that priming with ascorbic acid has positive effects on
drought resistance as proline accumulation and antioxidant action of phenolics
and ascorbic acid lead to membrane stability, tissue water maintenance and
uniform seedling growth and stand.

Fahim
et al. (2012) used selenium to prime
the wheat seeds to check its effect on growth and biochemical changes under
water deficit conditions. Research was conducted on two cultivars of wheat i.e.
Pasban-90 and Kohistan-97. Results showed that seedlings biomass was not
affected with Se seed priming under normal conditions, but it increased
significantly with increase in rates of Se under drought conditions.

Michael
et al. (2012) used completely
randomized design to conduct experiments to improve the growth of wheat seed
under salinity environments. Seeds primed with PEG6000 at pressure
of -1 MP and normal seeds and different concentrations of NaCl were tested.
They concluded that seed germination was improved at all the concentrations of NaCl.
The effect appeared to be diminished at the concentration of up to 200 mM but
give satisfactory results up at 50-100 mM. Primed seed resulted in higher and
faster germination under salinity conditions.

Saman
et al. (2016) experimented with seed
priming technique under several abiotic stress conditions to check the wheat
growth. Wheat cultivars seed NARC-2011 and NARC-2009 were surface disinfected
and primed using different techniques and stress was applied by cutting the
supply of water for 9 days, for seven days salt was introduced in the supplied
water to induce salinity 40C temperature was provided to induce heat stress.
Seed priming proved to be a successful method against several abiotic stresses.

Yousaf
et al. (2011) evaluated response of
few wheat varieties at two different seed levels and under several levels of
salinity. All parameters were enhanced except Na+ contents of shoot
which decreased prominently.

Iqbal
et al. (2006) used 3 priming agents
CaCl2, KCl and NaCl to induce change in endogenous hormonal level in
wheat pants under salinity conditions. All these agents proved to be effective
against salt stress but their influence in changing the levels of various
hormones were distinguished in two cultivars.

Mahnaz
et al. (2014) used seed priming
technique as a cradle of salt stress to check the germination of four varieties
of wheat seeds. Four different NaCl treatments were applied through the water
being used for the germination of wheat seeds. Seeds disinfected with the 5%
sodium in hypochlorite solution were afterwards washed thrice by distilled
water. Seeds in petri dishes were placed in the growth chamber at the
temperature of 25­o C for the period of 14th days.
Results showed that the impact of several treatments on the development was
quite prominent and Zarin variety appeared most tolerant against salt circumstances.

Attaullah
et al. (2017) examined response of 14
wheat selections with two seed treatments and four levels of salt conditions in
sand as the medium of growth and determined that salt stress does great damage
to growth types of wheat while priming with CaCl2 proved really
effective in lifting the adverse effects of salinity in wheat seeds. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The
research will be conducted in two different environments. One is green house
and second is Seed Science Laboratory of department Seed Science and
Technology, in University of Agriculture, Faisalabad under Completely
Randomized Design (CRD). Seeds will be collected from main seed storage of department
of Plant Breeding and Genetics of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

In
laboratory conditions water will be used as a priming agent in this research.
Firstly tube well water from districts of Lahore, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura and
Pattoki will be collected. PH of each sample will be measured with the help of
pH meter. PH meter and beaker in which the pH is going to be measured should
properly be washed with the distilled water to wash off any contaminants
attached to its surface so that the original pH of the sample water remain
undisturbed. The effect of these water samples will be monitored on four diverse
varieties of wheat seeds separately. The varieties used in this research will
be UJALA, Chakwal, Punjab 2011 and AAS 2017. Before soaking the seeds in the
water 200 seeds per variety will be weighed with the help of weight balance.
Then seeds of every variety will be soaked in district water samples for 9-10
hours and aeration will be provided with the help of aquarium pump. The treated
seeds will then be dried under shade for 1-2 days. Dried seeds will then be
weighed again using weight balance. From each treatment, 30 seeds were taken
and placed on double layer of filter paper thoroughly moistened, in petri
dishes. Petri dishes were properly sterilized before the use. Petri dishes containing
seeds will be provided with the temperature of 21 ± 1o C in the
growth chamber for appropriate germination. Seed will be regarded as germinated
after the radicle protrusion of 2mm.

In
the green house sand will be used as a growth medium in this research. Four
wheat varieties will be used to examine the effect of different district water.
The same procedure, as mentioned above, will be followed for the priming of
seeds. After that sand will be sterilized by washing it thoroughly thrice. A
standard pot of capacity 5-6 kg will be utilized for all the treatments. 50
seeds of each variety, treated with all four district water separately, were
sown at uniform depths.

The parameters used
to determine the effect of priming on different wheat seed varieties will be included
germination percentage, shoot length (cm), leaves per plant, leaf area (cm2),
root length, seedling vigor, fresh weight and dry weight