While other scientists sought to understand the

            While Bayer’s skilled chemists
attempted to create a magic bullet to fight malaria, other scientists sought to
understand the underlying mechanism of malaria infections. They discovered that
the species of malaria were unique to their own geographic regions of people
and mosquitoes. According to many biological historians, “trade, especially the
slave trade, allowed these microbes to spread across the globe” (Masterson, 17).
In 1880, Alphonse Laveran, a French army doctor who examined the fresh blood of
infected but alive soldiers, unknowingly captured the sexual stage of falciparum. Although he was unaware of
the explanation at the time, Laveran witnessed gametocytes, of which he noted
as “large microbes the size of the red blood cells,” that had swum to the
soldier’s surface tissue to be ingested by mosquitoes. In 1897, W. G. MacCullum
noticed the parasites in the blood of a sick crow fusing into an egg sac
(Masterson, 21). The first-year student at Johns Hopkins University’s medical
school, in his paper presented to the British Association for the Advance of
Science, suggested that this might be the methodology for which malaria
parasites procreate after being consumed by mosquitoes. Julius Wagner von
Jauregg was a psychiatrist engrossed in utilizing infectious diseases,
especially malaria, to cure different forms of mental illness. Surrounded by
ethical issues, his numerous experiments enabled him to differentiate between
P. falciparum and P. vivax. He recognized that falciparum was deadly and advocated for
the use of vivax for malaria therapy.
He also instructed other asylum doctors to use infected blood, instead of infected
mosquitoes, for the therapy. He explained that the mosquitoes introduce
sporozoites into the body, which could lead to relapses as P. vivax had a dormant liver stage and can
reactivate after a period of time without any precursor symptom (Masterson, 63).
By using infected blood, however, syphilitics are only exposed to a onetime
fever attack. After a myriad of experiments in the form of basic science
research, the puzzle of the malaria parasite life cycle was slowly being assembled.